British Columbia  - Periods - First Contact

First Contact & Trade (1778-1841)
With the arrival of the English, Spanish, and Russians, contact with the indigenous people was inevitable. The form and structure of this contact and the development of relationships were varied and contrasting, depending upon the explorers and the Indigenous group they met. With the explosion of European exploration and competition, the clash of cultures and trading opportunities was bound to bring these two worlds together for better or worse. This contact came from both land and sea and although not initially directed towards colonization, this was the first step towards changing BC for ever.
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James Cook & Nootka Sound

Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator, and cartographer who made three voyages to the Pacific Ocean between 1768
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Charles Barkley

Charles Barkley (1769-1798) was a British naval officer who served on the west coast of Canada during the late 18th century.
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Maquinna - Leader

Maquinna was a chief of the Nuu-chah-nulth people, an Indigenous group that lives on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada.
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George Vancouver

Captain George Vancouver was a British explorer and navigator who explored and mapped much of the Pacific Northwest of North
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Nootka Sound Treaty

The Nootka Sound Treaty, also known as the Nootka Convention, was a treaty signed in 1790 between Spain and Great Britain, aimed
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Alexander McKenzie

Sir Alexander Mackenzie was one of the greatest explorers in history. He opened up vast tracts of the Canadian wilderness for trade
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The Sea Otter Furs

The sea otter trade on the Pacific coast was a significant industry in the 18th and 19th centuries. Sea otters were hunted for their
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Trade & Social Change

During the colonial era, trade between the British and the indigenous people of British Columbia was primarily focused on the
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Hudson Bay Company

The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) is a Canadian retail company that was founded in 1670. It is the oldest commercial corporation in
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David Thompson

David Thompson was a Canadian explorer, surveyor, and mapmaker who explored and mapped much of what is now western Canada and
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Explorer Simon  Fraser

Simon Fraser was a Scottish explorer and fur trader who explored and mapped much of the area now known as British Columbia, Canada
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Coal on Van Island 

Coal was discovered on Vancouver Island in the 1850s, primarily in the Nanaimo area. The first coal mine was established in 1852
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